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Juli bis als Oberleitungssystem ausgeführt. Fontainebleau liegt an der Bahnstrecke Paris—Marseille und unterhält mit seiner Nachbarstadt den gemeinsamen Bahnhof Fontainebleau-Avon.
Die Reisezeit nach Paris beträgt ca. Siehe auch: Liste der Monuments historiques in Fontainebleau. Weitergeleitet von Font Fontainebleau.
Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Fontainebleau Begriffsklärung aufgeführt.
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Es hat heute 15 Register auf drei Manualen. Das Instrument ist mit einem Gesamttremulanten ausgestattet. Welterbestätten in Frankreich.
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Buch erstellen Als PDF herunterladen Druckversion. Kriterien :. Europa und Nordamerika. Geschichte der Einschreibung. I Grand Orgue C—d 3. It was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in In , the Ministry of Culture purchased the royal stables, and began their restoration.
Beginning in , restoration began of the theater of the Chateau, created by Napoleon III during the Second Empire. The project was funded by the government of Abu-Dhabi , and in exchange the theater was renamed for Sheik Khalifa Bin Zayed al Nahyan.
It was inaugurated on 30 April On 1 March , the Chinese Museum of the Chateau was robbed by professional thieves. They broke in at about six in the morning, and, despite alarms and video cameras, in seven minutes stole about fifteen of the most valuable objects in the collection, including the replica of the crown of Siam given by the Siamese government to Napoleon III, a Tibetan mandala , and an enamel chimera from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor — The Gallery of Francis I is one of the first and finest examples of Renaissance decoration in France.
It was originally constructed in as a passageway between the apartments of the King with the oval courtyard and the chapel of the convent Trinitaires, but in Francis I made it a part of his royal apartments, and between and it was decorated by artists and craftsmen from Italy, under the direction of the painter Rosso Fiorentino , or Primatice, in the new Renaissance style.
The lower walls of the passage were the work of the master Italian furniture maker Francesco Scibec da Carpi ; they are decorated with the coat of arms of France and the salamander , the emblem of the King.
The upper walls are covered by frescoes framed in richly sculpted stucco. The frescoes used mythological scenes to illustrate the virtues of the King.
On the side of gallery with windows, the frescoes represent Ignorance Driven Out ; The Unity of the State ; Cliobis and Biton ; Danae ; The Death of Adonis ; The Loss of Perpetual Youth ; and The Battle of the Centaurs and the Lapithes.
On the side of the gallery facing the windows, the frescoes represent: A Sacrifice ; The Royal Elephant ; The Burning of Catane ; The Nymph of Fontainebleau painted in —61 by J.
Alaux to cover a former entry to the gallery ; The Sinking of Ajax ; The Education of Achilles and The Frustration of Venus.
The ballroom was originally begun as an open passageway, or loggia , by Francis I. In about King Henry II closed it with high windows and an ornate coffered ceiling, and transformed it into a room for celebrations and balls.
The 'H', the initial of the King, is prominent in the decor, as well as figures of the crescent moon, the symbol of Henry's mistress Diane de Poitiers.
At the western end is a monumental fireplace, decorated with bronze statues originally copied from classical statues in Rome. At the eastern end of the room is a gallery where the musicians played during balls.
The decor was restored many times over the years. The floor, which mirrors the design of the ceiling, was built by Louis-Philippe in the first half of the 19th century.
The frescoes on the walls and pillars were painted beginning in by Nicolo dell'Abate , following drawings by Primatice.
On the garden side of the ballroom, they represent: The Harvest ; Vulcan forging weapons for Love at the request of Venus ; Phaeton begging the sun to let him drive his chariot ; and Jupiter and Mercury at the home of Philemon and Baucis.
The frescoes on the side of the Oval Courtyard represent: The feast of Bacchus ; Apollo and the Muses on Mount Parnassus ; The Three Graces dancing before the gods ; and The wedding feast of Thetis and Peleus.
Behind the ballroom, there is St. Saturnin's Chapel. The lower chapel was originally built in the 12th century, but was destroyed and completely rebuilt under Francis I.
A room for the guards was always located next to the royal bedchambers. The Salle des Gardes was built during the reign of Charles IX.
Some traces of the original decor remain from the s, including the vaulted ceiling and a frieze of military trophies attributed to Ruggiero d'Ruggieri.
In the 19th century Louis Philippe turned the room into a salon and redecorated it with a new parquet floor of exotic woods echoing the design of the ceiling, and a monumental fireplace , which incorporates pieces of ornament from demolished rooms from 15th and early 16th century.
The bust of Henry IV, attributed to Mathieu Jacquet, is from that period, as are the two figures on either side of the fireplace.
The sculpted frame around the bust, by Pierre Bontemps, was originally in the bedchamber of Henry II. During the reign of Napoleon III , the hall was used as a dining room.
It was designed by the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel , who used many decorative elements from the earlier room, which had originally been decorated by Primatice.
The upper portion of the walls is divided into panels, oval and rectangular, with scenes representing the love life of Alexander the Great.
The paintings are framed by large statues of women by Primatice. The eastern wall of the room was destroyed during the reconstruction, and was replaced during the reign of Louis Philippe in the 19th century with paintings by Abel de Pujol.
The ornate ceiling over the bed was made in by the furniture-maker Guillaume Noyers for the Dowager Queen Anne of Austria , the mother of Louis XIV, and bears her initials.
The room was redecorated by Marie Leszczynska , the Queen of Louis XV in — The ceiling of the alcove, the decoration around the windows and the wood panelling were made by Jacques Vererckt and Antoine Magnonais in the rocaille style of the day.
The decoration of the fireplace dates to the same period. The doors have an arabesque design, and were made for Marie-Antoinette , as were the sculpted panels over the doors, installed in The bed was also made specially for Marie Antoinette, but did not arrive until , after the Revolution and her execution.
The walls received their ornamental textile covering, with a design of flowers and birds, in It was restored in — using the original fabric as a model.
The furniture in the room all dates to the First Empire. The balustrade around the bed was originally made for the throne room of the Tuileries Palace in The armchairs with a sphinx pattern, the consoles and screen and the two chests of drawers were placed in the room in The boudoir next to the Queen's bedroom was created for Queen Marie-Antoinette in , and permitted the Queen to have a measure of privacy.
The room is the best surviving example of the decorative style just before the French Revolution, inspired by ancient Roman models, with delicately painted arabesques, cameos, vases, antique figures and garlands of flowers against a silver background, framed by gilded and sculpted woodwork.
The mahogany parquet floor, decorated with the emblems of the Queen, was made by Bernard Molitor , and finished in The furnishings were designed for the room by Jean-Henri Riesener , using the finest materials available; mother of pearl, gilded bronze, brass, satin and ebony.
Some of the original furnishings remain, including the cylindrical desk and the table, which were made between and The two armchairs are copies of the originals made by Georges Jacob which are now in the Gulbenkian Museum in Lisbon, while the footstool is the original.
In Napoleon decided to install his throne in the former bedroom of the Kings of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI, on the place where the royal bed had been.
Under the Old Regime, the King's bed was a symbol of royal authority in France and was saluted by courtiers who passed by it.
Napoleon wanted to show the continuity of his Empire with the past monarchies of France. The ceiling directly over the throne was made at the end of the reign of Louis XIV.
Louis XV created the portion of the ceiling directly over the throne, a new chimney, sculpted wooden medallions near the fireplace, the designs over the doors, and the fine carved woodwork facing the throne — He also had the ceiling painted white and gilded and decorated with mosaics, to match the ceiling of the bedroom of the Queen.
Napoleon added the standards with his initial and the Imperial eagle. The decoration around the throne was originally designed in by Jacob-Desmalter for the Palace of Saint-Cloud, and the throne itself came from the Tuileries Palace.
The chimney was originally decorated with a portrait of Louis XIII painted by Philippe de Champaigne , which was burned in during the French Revolution.
In , King Louis-Philippe took down Napoleon's picture and replaced with another of Louis XIII, from a painter of the school of Champaigne, .
The Council Chamber, where the Kings and Emperors met their closest advisors, was close to the Throne Room. It was originally the office of Francis I, and was decorated with painted wooden panels showing following designs of Primatice, the virtues and the heroes of antiquity.
The room was enlarged under Louis XIV, and the decorator, Claude Audran, followed the same theme. The room was entirely redecorated between and by the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel , with arcades and wooded panels showing the virtues, and allegories of the seasons and the elements, painted by Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre and Carle van Loo.
The room was used as a council chamber by Napoleon I, and the furnishings are from that time. The armchairs at the table for the ministers are by Marcion and the folding chairs for advisors are by Jacob-Desmalter The apartment of the Pope, located on the first floor of the wing of the Queen Mothers and of the Gros Pavillon , takes its name from the visit of Pope Pius VII, who stayed there on his way to Paris to crown Napoleon I the Emperor of France.
He stayed there again, involuntarily, under the close supervision of Napoleon from to Prior to that, beginning in the 17th century it was the residence of the Queen Mothers Marie de' Medici and Anne of Austria.
It was also the home of the Grand Dauphin, the oldest son of Louis XIV. In the 18th century it was used by the daughters of Louis XV , and then by the Count of Provence, the brother of Louis XVI.
During the First Empire it was used by Louis, the brother of Napoleon, and his wife Queen Hortense, the daughter of the Empress Josephine.
During the reign of Louis-Philippe, it was used by his eldest son, the Duke of Orleans. During the Second Empire, it was occupied by Stephanie de Bade, the adopted niece of Napoleon I.
It was restored in —, and used thereafter for guests of high rank. The Salon de Reception was the anteroom to the bedroom of Anne of Austria, wife of Louis XIII and mother of Louis XIV.
Anne had it moved to the room and decorated with her own emblems, including a pelican. The wood paneling in the room is probably from the same period.
The bedroom was modified in the 18th century by the addition of a new fireplace about and sculptured borders of cascades of flowers around the mirrors added in During the Secone Empire, painted panels imitating the style of the 17th century were added above the mirrors and between the mirrors and the doors.
The Gallery of Diana, an eighty-meter The paintings on the vaulted ceiling, painted beginning in by Ambroise Dubois and his workshop, represented scenes from the myth of Diana , goddess of the Hunt.
In Napoleon decided to turn it into a gallery devoted the achievements of his Empire. A few of the paintings still in good condition were removed and put in the Gallery of Plates.
The architect Hurtault designed a new plan for the gallery, inspired by the Grand Gallery of the Louvre, featuring paintings on the ceiling illustrating the great events of Napoleon's reign.
Once the monarchy was restored, King Louis XVIII had the gallery completed in a neoclassical style. A new series of the goddess Diana was done by Merry-Joseph Blondel and Abel de Pujol , using the painted frames prepared for Napoleon's cycle.
Beginning in , under Napoleon III , the corridor was turned into a library and most of the paintings were removed, with the exception of a large portrait of Henry IV on horseback by Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse.
The large globe near the entrance of the gallery, placed there in , came from the office of Napoleon in the Tuileries Palace. In Napoleon decided that he wanted his own private suite of apartments within the Palace, separate from the old state apartments.
He took over a suite of six rooms which had been created in for Louis XVI, next to the Gallery of Francis I, and had them redecorated in the Empire style.
The old apartment included a dressing room cabinet de toilette , study, library, and bath. Beginning in , Napoleon had his bedroom in the former dressing room of the King.
From this room, using a door hidden behind the drapery to the right of the bed, Napoleon could go directly to his private library or to the offices on the ground floor.
Much of the original decor was unchanged from the time of Louis XVI; the fireplaces, the carved wooden panels sculpted by Pierre-Joseph LaPlace and the sculpture over the door by Sauvage remained as they were.
The walls were painted with Imperial emblems in gold on white by Frederic-Simon Moench. The bed, made especially for the Emperor, was the summit of the Empire style; it was crowned with an imperial eagle and decorated with allegorical sculptures representing Glory, Justice, and Abundance.
The Emperor had a special carpet made by Sallandrouze in the shape of the cross of the Legion of Honor ; the branches of the cross alternate with symbols of military and civilian attributes.
The painting on the ceiling of the room was added later, after the downfall of Napoleon, by Louis XVIII. Painted by Jean-Baptiste Regnault , it is an allegory representing The clemency of the King halting justice in its course.
The study was a small room designated as Napoleon's work room. In he added the camp bed, similar to the bed he used on his military campaigns, so he could rest briefly during a long night of work.
The salon of the Emperor was simply furnished and decorated. It was in this room, on the small table on display, that the Emperor signed his abdication in Concerts, plays and other theatrical productions were a regular part of court life at Fontainebleau.
It was rebuilt by the architect Gabriel, but was destroyed by a fire in