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The indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional indigenous languages, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the Spanish language.
There has been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public schools in the areas where Quechua is spoken. Roman Catholicism has been the predominant faith in Peru for centuries, albeit religious practices have a high degree of syncretism with indigenous traditions.
Amerindian religious traditions continue to play a major role in the beliefs of Peruvians. Catholic festivities like Corpus Christi , Holy Week and Christmas sometimes blend with Amerindian traditions.
Amerindian festivities from pre-Columbian remain widespread; Inti Raymi , an ancient Inca festival, is still celebrated, especially in rural communities.
The majority of towns, cities, and villages have their own official church or cathedral and patron saint. Peru's literacy rate is estimated at Peru is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World.
The National University of San Marcos , founded on 12 May , during the Viceroyalty of Peru , is the first officially established and the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Peru has a life expectancy of Many of the Peruvian toponyms have indigenous sources. In the Andes communities of Ancash , Cusco and Puno , Quechua or Aymara names are overwhelmingly predominant.
Their Spanish-based orthography, however, is in conflict with the normalized alphabets of these languages. The National Geographic Institute realizes the necessary changes in the official maps of Peru.
Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian traditions,  though it has also been influenced by various Asian, African, and European ethnic groups.
Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu.
Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions. During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cusco School are representative.
Peruvian art has its origin in the Andean civilizations. These civilizations rose in the territory of modern Peru before the arrival of the Spanish.
Peruvian art incorporated European elements after the Spanish conquest and continued to evolve throughout the centuries up on to the modern day.
Decorative work from this era, approximately the 9th century BCE, was symbolic and religious in nature. The artists worked with gold, silver and ceramics to create a variety of sculpture and relief carvings.
These civilizations were also known for their architecture and wood sculpture. Between the 9th century BCE and the 2nd century CE, the Paracas Cavernas and Paracas Necropolis cultures developed on the south coast of Peru.
Paracas Cavernas produced complex polychrome and monochrome ceramics with religious representations. Burials from the Paracas Necropolis also yielded complex textiles , many produced with sophisticated geometric patterns.
The 3rd century BCE saw the flowering of the urban culture, Moche , in the Lambayeque region. They were experts at cultivation in terraces and hydraulic engineering and produced original ceramics, textiles, pictorial and sculptural works.
Another urban culture, the Wari civilization , flourished between the 8th and 12th centuries in Ayacucho. Their centralized town planning was extended to other areas, such as Pachacamac , Cajamarquilla and Wari Willka.
Between the 9th and 13th centuries CE, the military urban Tiwanaku empire rose by the borders of Lake Titicaca.
Centered around a city of the same name in modern-day Bolivia, the Tiwanaku introduced stone architecture and sculpture of a monumental type.
These works of architecture and art were made possible by the Tiwanaku's developing bronze , which enabled them to make the necessary tools.
The Inca Civilization , which united Peru under its hegemony in the centuries immediately preceding the Spanish conquest, incorporated into their own works a great part of the cultural legacy of the civilizations which preceded it.
Peruvian sculpture and painting began to define themselves from the ateliers founded by monks , who were strongly influenced by the Sevillian Baroque School.
In this context, the stalls of the Cathedral choir, the fountain of the Main Square of Lima both by Pedro de Noguera , and a great part of the colonial production were registered.
The first center of art established by the Spanish was the Cuzco School that taught Quechua artists European painting styles. Diego Quispe Tito — was one of the first members of the Cuzco school and Marcos Zapata — was one of the last.
Painting of this time reflected a synthesis of European and indigenous influences, as is evident in the portrait of prisoner Atahualpa, by D.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Baroque Style also dominated the field of plastic arts. The term Peruvian literature not only refers to literature produced in the independent Republic of Peru, but also to literature produced in the Viceroyalty of Peru during the country's colonial period, and to oral artistic forms created by diverse ethnic groups that existed in the area during the prehispanic period , such as the Quechua , the Aymara and the Chanka people.
Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature.
After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma.
Modern Peruvian literature is recognized thanks to authors such as Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa , a leading member of the Latin American Boom.
Due to the Spanish expedition and discovery of the Americas, the explorers started the Columbian Exchange which included food unheard of in the Old World, such as potato , tomato , and maize.
Modern indigenous Peruvian food mainly consists of corn, potatoes, and chilies. There are now more than 3, kinds of potatoes grown on Peruvian terrain, according to Peru's Instituto Peruano de la Papa.
Peru's varied climate allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking. Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the indigenous population including the Inca and cuisines brought in with colonizers and immigrants.
Without the familiar ingredients from their home countries, immigrants modified their traditional cuisines by using ingredients available in Peru.
Staples brought by the Spanish include rice , wheat and meats beef, pork and chicken. Many traditional foods—such as quinoa , kiwicha , chili peppers , and several roots and tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques.
It is also common to see traditional cuisines being served with a modern flair in towns like Cusco , where tourists come to visit.
Chef Gaston Acurio has become well known for raising awareness of local ingredients. Peruvian music has Andean , Spanish , and African roots.
Peruvian folk dances include marinera , tondero , zamacueca , diablada and huayno. Peruvian music is dominated by the national instrument , the charango.
The charango is member of the lute family of instruments and was invented during colonial times by musicians imitating the Spanish vihuela.
In the Canas and Titicaca regions, the charango is used in courtship rituals, symbolically invoking mermaids with the instrument to lure the woman to the male performers.
Until the s, the charango was denigrated as an instrument of the rural poor. After the revolution in , which built upon the Indigenismo movement — , the charango was popularized among other performers.
Variants include the walaycho , chillador , chinlili , and the larger and lower-tuned charangon. While the Spanish guitar is widely played, so too is the Spanish-in-origin bandurria.
Unlike the guitar, it has been transformed by Peruvian players over the years, changing from a string, 6-course instrument to one having 12 to 16 strings in a mere four courses.
Violins and harps , also of European origin, are also played. While the Peruvian film industry has not been nearly as prolific as that of some other Latin American countries, some Peruvian movies produced enjoyed regional success.
Historically, the cinema of Peru began in Iquitos in by Antonio Wong Rengifo with a momentous, initial film billboard from because the rubber boom and the intense arrival of foreigners with technology to the city, and thus continued an extensive, unique filmography, with a different style than the films made in the capital, Lima.
Peru also produced the first animated 3-D film in Latin America , Piratas en el Callao. This film is set in the historical port city of Callao , which during colonial times had to defend itself against attacks by Dutch and British privateers seeking to undercut Spain's trade with its colonies.
The film was produced by the Peruvian company Alpamayo Entertainment, which made a second 3-D film one year later: Dragones: Destino de Fuego. In February , the film Madeinusa , produced as a joint venture between Peru and Spain and directed by Claudia Llosa , was set in an imaginary Andean village and describes the stagnating life of Madeinusa performed by Magaly Solier and the traumas of post-civil war Peru.
Llosa's second feature, The Milk of Sorrow "La Teta Asustada" , was nominated for the 82nd Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Picture, the first Peruvian film in the Academy's history to be nominated.
The Milk of Sorrow "La Teta Asustada" , won the Golden Bear award at the Berlinale. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from El Peru.
This article is about the country in South America. For other uses, see Peru disambiguation. Country in South America. National seal. Quechua Aymara Other indigenous languages.
List of ethnic groups. Main article: History of Peru. See also: Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru , Agricultural history of Peru , and Economic history of Peru.
Main articles: Pre-Columbian Peru and Andean civilizations. Main articles: Spanish conquest of Peru and Viceroyalty of Peru. Main article: Peruvian War of Independence.
Main articles: Operation Car Wash , — Peruvian political crisis , and — Peruvian constitutional crisis. Main articles: Government of Peru and Politics of Peru.
Main article: Administrative divisions of Peru. Main article: Foreign relations of Peru. Main article: Peruvian Armed Forces.
Main article: Geography of Peru. Main article: Climate of Peru. Main article: Wildlife of Peru. Main article: Economy of Peru.
Buildings in Lima's financial district of San Isidro. The Callao seaport, Peru's main export outlet. Main articles: Demographics of Peru and Peruvian people.
Largest cities or towns in Peru Estimated Ethnic Groups in Peru Census  Ethnic Groups percent Mestizo. Main article: Languages of Peru.
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Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. Archived from the original PDF on 19 August Retrieved 31 August French Politics.
Only in Latin America have all new democracies retained a pure presidential form, except for Peru president-parliamentary and Bolivia assembly-independent.
National Institute of Statistics and Informatics. September Grandi classici. L'agenzia locale di Giada recensioni. L'agenzia locale di Giada.
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